Carbonate - Declaration

Carbonate - Declaration

Turner use magnesium to avoid slipping.

Properties of carbonates

Carbonates are divalent salts of carbonic acid. The carbonic acid H 2 CO 3 has two series of salts: The hydrogen carbonates with the anion HCO 3 - and the carbonates with the anion CO 3 2 -.

  • In Karbonatanion three oxygen atoms are bonded to a carbon atom. The ion is completely planar and all the OCO angle is 120 °.
  • Carbonates are crystalline, odorless solids at room temperature in the rule. Their color is determined by the cation of the salt.
  • Carbonates react as a base by accepting a proton and Hydrogenkarbonation HCO 3 - react. When heated they decompose into a metal oxide and carbon dioxide, such as calcium carbonate: CaCO3 -> CaO + CO 2.
  • Qualitative detection of carbonates is done with barium hydroxide solution in a fermentation tube. The sample solution is acidified with hydrochloric acid and sealed with a Gährröhrchen. Are carbonates, they react with the acid to CO 2: CO 3 2 - + 2HCl -> CO 2 + 2Cl - + H 2 O. The CO 2 rises to the top and is passed through the fermentation tube in the barium hydroxide solution. In the following reaction, the sparingly soluble barium carbonate precipitates as a white precipitate: CO 2 + Ba (OH) 2 -> BaCO 3 + H 2 O.

Use of carbonates

  • Calciukarbonat CaCO 3 (limestone) is mainly used in the construction industry and as fertilizer.
  • Magnesium is used by athletes to increase the grip, z. B. in gymnastics, weightlifting and pole vault.
  • Various carbonates, such as those of sodium, barium, manganese and potassium used as food additives, for the manufacture of glass, as fertilizer, or raw materials in the chemical industry.
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